Conscious Ritualing: The Original Tool for Transformation
That is about as simple as it gets. We cling to what we know. As long as our landmarks and pathways work for us, well, fine. When what works stops working you want to be ready to look around. That is when we need to look for new qualia, and when we need to practice our conscious ritualing. Qualia is what connects our senses to the landscapes around us. Qualia appears to us as color, sound, smell, taste, and texture. But, while our senses tell us that a rose is red and has thorns, our thoughts tell us that a rose is beautiful, painful, and a symbol for love and suffering. Therefore, thoughts are qualia, too, for we sense them we have both outward and inward facing senses.
Qualia connects our inner landscape with our outer landscape. Qualia, in short, consists of all that our senses tell us about the landscapes in which we live, as well as the thoughts we have about them. There are, essentially, only two things in the world: All matter forms itself around qualia, the way the freezing water molecules of a snowflake form themselves around a hexagon. The hexagon helps the snowflake endure; qualia helps all matter endure. Atoms and molecules, plants and animals including humans , and even landscapes, ecosystems, cultures, and civilizations, endure because of the qualia around which they form themselves.
The qualia we notice directs us to the material world, and to the things we need to survive, like food, shelter, and sex. We are still, basically, animals, despite our amazing, human brains. Animals merely react to the qualia which appears to their senses, to the qualia in their landscapes which they have evolved to notice.
Animals are hardwired to the landscape. The qualia we hold in our inner landscapes, in our minds, does not have to send us off chasing matter in the outer landscape. The qualia we choose to hold in our minds is our most valuable possession. When we refocus upon qualia, instead of matter, something changes in our brains, and in our bodies, and it pours forth from us, changing the outer landscape. Is it not better to operate from the point of view that the material world forms itself around us, rather than succumb to the belief that we form ourselves around the material world?
Unlike material possessions, qualia can be shared without diminishment. Indeed, sharing enhances qualia. We evolve with qualia, and qualia evolves with us, changing the landscape. When we choose the qualia to which we shall pay attention, our inner landscape becomes like the hexagon in a snowflake, and what matter we do need will come to us.
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We must lower or raise our Participation or our Interest Level in various landscapes. The goal is get our Interest and Participation levels to match up. We shall find that it is healthiest when they match up somewhere in the middle, and not at the extremes. Ideally, as well, they should match up at 5 to 5, a perfect balance. In every case, however, balancing our Interest and Participation Levels begins with paying renewed attention to the landmarks we notice and the pathways we follow in any particular landscape.
For instance, the parenting landscape. Despite the warnings of the blind prophet Tiresias , they deny him worship and denounce him for inspiring the women of Thebes to madness. Dionysus uses his divine powers to drive Pentheus insane, then invites him to spy on the ecstatic rituals of the Maenads , in the woods of Mount Cithaeron.
Pentheus, hoping to witness a sexual orgy , hides himself in a tree. The Maenads spot him; maddened by Dionysus, they take him to be a mountain-dwelling lion , and attack him with their bare hands. Pentheus' aunts and his mother Agave are among them, and they rip him limb from limb. Agave mounts his head on a pike, and takes the trophy to her father Cadmus. The madness passes. Dionysus arrives in his true, divine form, banishes Agave and her sisters, and transforms Cadmus and his wife Harmonia into serpents. Only Tiresias is spared.
Dionysus fled and took refuge with Thetis , and sent a drought which stirred the people to revolt.
The god then drove King Lycurgus insane and had him slice his own son into pieces with an axe in the belief that he was a patch of ivy, a plant holy to Dionysus. An oracle then claimed that the land would stay dry and barren as long as Lycurgus lived, and his people had him drawn and quartered. Appeased by the king's death, Dionysus lifted the curse.
This story is told in Homer's Iliad 6. In an alternative version, sometimes depicted in art, Lycurgus tries to kill Ambrosia, a follower of Dionysus, who was transformed into a vine that twined around the enraged king and slowly strangled him. The Homeric Hymn 7 to Dionysus recounts how, while he sat on the seashore, some sailors spotted him, believing him a prince.
They attempted to kidnap him and sail away to sell him for ransom or into slavery. No rope would bind him. The god turned into a fierce lion and unleashed a bear on board, killing all in his path. Those who jumped ship were mercifully turned into dolphins. The only survivor was the helmsman, Acoetes , who recognized the god and tried to stop his sailors from the start. In a similar story, Dionysus hired a Tyrrhenian pirate ship to sail from Icaria to Naxos. When he was aboard, they sailed not to Naxos but to Asia, intending to sell him as a slave. This time the god turned the mast and oars into snakes, and filled the vessel with ivy and the sound of flutes so that the sailors went mad and, leaping into the sea, were turned into dolphins.
In Ovid 's Metamorphoses , Bacchus begins this story as a young child found by the pirates, but transforms to a divine adult when on board. Many of the Dionysus myths involve the god, whose birth was secret, defending his godhead against skeptics. Malcolm Bull notes that "It is a measure of Bacchus's ambiguous position in classical mythology that he, unlike the other Olympians, had to use a boat to travel to and from the islands with which he is associated". In that sense, it serves as final proof of his divinity, and is often followed by his descent into Hades to retrieve his mother, both of whom can then ascend into heaven to live alongside the other Olympian gods.
Pausanias , in book II of his Description of Greece , describes two variant traditions regarding Dionysus' katabasis , or descent into the underworld. Both describe how Dionysus entered into the afterlife to rescue his mother Semele, and bring her to her rightful place on Olympus.
To do so, he had to contend with the hell dog Cerberus , which was restrained for him by Heracles. After retrieving Semele, Dionysus emerged with her from the unfathomable waters of a lagoon on the coast of the Argolid near the prehistoric site of Lerna , according to the local tradition. According to Paola Corrente, the emergence of Dionysus from the waters of the lagoon may signify a form of rebirth for both him and Semele as they reemerged from the underworld.
According to the Christian writer Clement of Alexandria , Dionysus was guided in his journey by Prosymnus or Polymnus, who requested, as his reward, to be Dionysus' lover. Prosymnus died before Dionysus could honor his pledge, so to satisfy Prosymnus' shade, Dionysus fashioned a phallus from an olive branch and sat on it at Prosymnus' tomb.
This same myth of Dionysus' descent to the underworld is related by both Diodorus Siculus in his 1st century BC work Bibliotheca historica , and Pseudo- Apollodorus in the third book of his 1st century AD work Bibliotheca. In the latter, Apollodorus tells how after having been hidden away from Hera's wrath, Dionysus traveled the world opposing those who denied his godhood, finally proving it when he transformed his pirate captors into dolphins.
After this, the culmination of his life on earth was his descent to retrieve his mother from the underworld. He renamed his mother Thyone , and ascended with her to heaven, where she became a goddess. Dionysus discovered that his old school master and foster father, Silenus , had gone missing. The old man had wandered away drunk, and was found by some peasants who carried him to their king Midas alternatively, he passed out in Midas' rose garden.
The king recognized him hospitably, feasting him for ten days and nights while Silenus entertained with stories and songs. On the eleventh day, Midas brought Silenus back to Dionysus. Dionysus offered the king his choice of reward. Midas asked that whatever he might touch would turn to gold. Dionysus consented, though was sorry that he had not made a better choice. Midas rejoiced in his new power, which he hastened to put to the test.
He touched and turned to gold an oak twig and a stone, but his joy vanished when he found that his bread, meat, and wine also turned to gold. Later, when his daughter embraced him, she too turned to gold. The horrified king strove to divest the Midas Touch , and he prayed to Dionysus to save him from starvation. The god consented, telling Midas to wash in the river Pactolus. As he did so, the power passed into them, and the river sands turned gold: this etiological myth explained the gold sands of the Pactolus.
When Hephaestus bound Hera to a magical chair, Dionysus got him drunk and brought him back to Olympus after he passed out. When Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, Dionysus found and married her. She bore him a son named Oenopion, but he committed suicide or was killed by Perseus. In some variants, he had her crown put into the heavens as the constellation Corona; in others, he descended into Hades to restore her to the gods on Olympus.
Another account claims Dionysus ordered Theseus to abandon Ariadne on the island of Naxos, for Dionysus had seen her as Theseus carried her onto the ship and had decided to marry her. Dionysus, as patron of the Athenian dramatic festival, the Dionysia , wants to bring back to life one of the great tragedians.
After a poetry slam , Aeschylus is chosen in preference to Euripides. Psalacantha , a nymph, failed to win the love of Dionysus in preference to Ariadne, and ended up being changed into a plant. Callirrhoe was a Calydonian woman who scorned Coresus , a priest of Dionysus, who threatened to afflict all the women of Calydon with insanity see Maenad. The priest was ordered to sacrifice Callirhoe but he killed himself instead.
Callirhoe threw herself into a well which was later named after her. The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a mature male, bearded and robed. He holds a fennel staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus. Later images show him as a beardless, sensuous, naked or half-naked androgynous youth: the literature describes him as womanly or "man-womanish". His procession thiasus is made up of wild female followers maenads and bearded satyrs with erect penises ; some are armed with the thyrsus , some dance or play music.
The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers, and is sometimes attended by a bearded, drunken Silenus. This procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. Dionysus is represented by city religions as the protector of those who do not belong to conventional society and he thus symbolizes the chaotic, dangerous and unexpected, everything which escapes human reason and which can only be attributed to the unforeseeable action of the gods.
Dionysus was a god of resurrection and he was strongly linked to the bull. In a cult hymn from Olympia , at a festival for Hera, Dionysus is invited to come as a bull; "with bull-foot raging". Walter Burkert relates, "Quite frequently [Dionysus] is portrayed with bull horns, and in Kyzikos he has a tauromorphic image", and refers also to an archaic myth in which Dionysus is slaughtered as a bull calf and impiously eaten by the Titans. His iconography sometimes include maenads , who wear wreaths of ivy and serpents around their hair or neck. Peters suggests the original meaning as "he who runs among the trees", or that of a "runner in the woods".
Janda accepts the etymology but proposes the more cosmological interpretation of "he who impels the world- tree". This interpretation explains how Nysa could have been re-interpreted from a meaning of "tree" to the name of a mountain: the axis mundi of Indo-European mythology is represented both as a world-tree and as a world-mountain. Dionysus is also closely associated with the transition between summer and autumn.
In the Mediterranean summer, marked by the rising of the dog star Sirius , the weather becomes extremely hot, but it is also a time when the promise of coming harvests grow. Late summer, when Orion is at the center of the sky, was the time of the grape harvest in ancient Greece. Plato describes the gifts of this season as the fruit that is harvested as well as Dionysian joy. Pindar describes the "pure light of high summer" as closely associated with Dionysus and possibly even an embodiment of the god himself. An image of Dionysus' birth from Zeus' thigh call him "the light of Zeus" Dios phos and associate him with the light of Sirius.
The god, and still more often his followers, were commonly depicted in the painted pottery of Ancient Greece , much of which made to hold wine. But, apart from some reliefs of maenads , Dionysian subjects rarely appeared in large sculpture before the Hellenistic period, when they became common.
The Furietti Centaurs and Sleeping Hermaphroditus reflect related subjects, which had by this time become drawn into the Dionysian orbit. The Dionysian world by the Hellenistic period is a hedonistic but safe pastoral into which other semi-divine creatures of the countryside have been co-opted, such as centaurs , nymphs , and the gods Pan and Hermaphrodite.
They have in common with satyrs and nymphs that they are creatures of the outdoors and are without true personal identity. Dionysus appealed to the Hellenistic monarchies for a number of reasons, apart from merely being a god of pleasure: He was a human who became divine, he came from, and had conquered, the East, exemplified a lifestyle of display and magnificence with his mortal followers, and was often regarded as an ancestor.
The 4th-century AD Lycurgus Cup in the British Museum is a spectacular cage cup which changes colour when light comes through the glass; it shows the bound King Lycurgus being taunted by the god and attacked by a satyr; this may have been used for celebration of Dionysian mysteries. Elizabeth Kessler has theorized that a mosaic appearing on the triclinium floor of the House of Aion in Nea Paphos , Cyprus, details a monotheistic worship of Dionysus. The mid-Byzantine Veroli Casket shows the tradition lingering in Constantinople around AD, but probably not very well understood.
Bacchic subjects in art resumed in the Italian Renaissance , and soon became almost as popular as in antiquity, but his "strong association with feminine spirituality and power almost disappeared", as did "the idea that the destructive and creative powers of the god were indissolubly linked". The statue aspires to suggest both drunken incapacity and an elevated consciousness, but this was perhaps lost on later viewers, and typically the two aspects were thereafter split, with a clearly drunk Silenus representing the former, and a youthful Bacchus often shown with wings, because he carries the mind to higher places.
Flemish Baroque painting frequently painted the Bacchic followers, as in Van Dyck's Drunken Silenus and many works by Rubens ; Poussin was another regular painter of Bacchic scenes. A common theme in art beginning in the 16th century was the depiction of Bacchus and Ceres caring for a representation of love — often Venus, Cupid, or Amore. This tradition derived from a quotation by the Roman comedian Terence c. Its simplest level of meaning is that love needs food and wine to thrive.
Artwork based on this saying was popular during the period —, especially in Northern Mannerism in Prague and the Low Countries , as well as by Rubens. Because of his association with the vine harvest, Bacchus became the god of autumn, and he and his followers were often shown in sets depicting the seasons.
Dionysus has remained an inspiration to artists, philosophers and writers into the modern era. In The Birth of Tragedy , the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche proposed that a tension between Apollonian and Dionysian aesthetic principles underlay the development of Greek tragedy ; Dionysus represented what was unrestrained chaotic and irrational, while Apollo represented the rational and ordered.
This concept of a rivalry or opposition between Dionysus and Apollo has been characterized as a "modern myth", as it is the invention of modern thinkers like Nietzsche and Johann Joachim Winckelmann , and is not found in classical sources. However, the acceptance and popularity of this theme in Western culture has been so great, that its undercurrent has influenced the conclusions of classical scholarship. Nietzsche also claimed that the oldest forms of Greek Tragedy were entirely based upon the suffering Dionysus.
In The Hellenic Religion of the Suffering God , and Dionysus and Early Dionysianism , the poet Vyacheslav Ivanov elaborates the theory of Dionysianism , tracing the origins of literature, and tragedy in particular, to ancient Dionysian mysteries. She makes a libation to Liber and Libera , Roman equivalents of Dionysus and Persephone, and is transported back in time to ancient Rome. Walt Disney depicted Bacchus in the " Pastoral " segment of the animated film Fantasia , as a Silenus -like character.
In , an adaption of The Bacchae was performed, called Dionysus in ' A film was made of the same performance. The production was notable for involving audience participation, nudity, and theatrical innovations.
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The musical keeps the descent of Dionysus into Hades to bring back a playwright; however, the playwrights are updated to modern times, and Dionysus is forced to choose between George Bernard Shaw and William Shakespeare. Musician Brendan Perry described the inspiration for the album as a trance-like, "Dionysian" experience he had at a festival during a trip to rural Spain. They're all over the Mediterranean in remote places where Christian influence hasn't been as great.
People wear masks and dance in circles almost like time has stood still in their celebrations. Numerous scholars have compared narratives surrounding the Christian figure of Jesus with those associated with Dionysus. Some scholars of comparative mythology identify both Dionysus and Jesus with the dying-and-rising god mythological archetype. The two stories take place in very different historical and geographic contexts. Also, the manner of death is different; in the most common myth, Dionysus was torn to pieces and eaten by the titans , but "eventually restored to a new life" from the heart that was left over.
Another parallel can be seen in The Bacchae where Dionysus appears before King Pentheus on charges of claiming divinity, which is compared to the New Testament scene of Jesus being interrogated by Pontius Pilate. The discrepancies between the two stories, including their resolutions, have led many scholars to regard the Dionysus story as radically different from the one about Jesus, except for the parallel of the arrest, which is a detail that appears in many biographies as well. Other elements, such as the celebration by a ritual meal of bread and wine, also have parallels.
Within Orphism, it was believed that consuming the meat and wine was symbolic of the Titans eating the flesh meat and blood wine of Dionysus and that, by participating in the omophagia, Dionysus' followers could achieve communion with the god. Powell, in particular, argues that precursors to the Catholic notion of transubstantiation can be found in Dionysian religion.
Kessler has argued that the Dionysian cult developed into strict monotheism by the 4th century AD; together with Mithraism and other sects, the cult formed an instance of "pagan monotheism" in direct competition with Early Christianity during Late Antiquity. Such comparisons surface in details of paintings by Poussin.
McDonough, Greek-speakers may have confused Aramaic words such as Sabbath , Alleluia , or even possibly some variant of the name Yahweh itself for more familiar terms associated with Dionysus. John Moles has argued that the Dionysian cult influenced early Christianity, and especially the way that Christians understood themselves as a "new" religion centered around a savior deity. In particular, he argues that the account of Christian origins in the Acts of the Apostles was heavily influenced by Euripides ' The Bacchae. The Dionysus Cup , a 6th-century BC kylix with Dionysus sailing with the pirates he transformed to dolphins.
Statue of Dionysus in Remich Luxembourg. A Bacchus themed table - the top was made in Florence c. Bacchus - Giovanni Francesco Romanelli 17th century. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Greco-Roman deity. For other uses of the names "Dionysus" and "Dionysos", see Dionysos disambiguation. For other uses of the theophoric name "Dionysius", see Dionysius disambiguation. For other uses, see Bacchus disambiguation. For the genus of beetles, see Bassareus beetle.
Ancient Greek god of winemaking and wine. God of the vine, grape-harvest, wine-making, wine, fertility, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, theatre. Cardinal Richelieu , Louvre . Main article: Cult of Dionysus. Main article: Dionysia. Main article: Dionysian Mysteries. Main article: Orphism religion. Main article: Bacchanalia. Main article: Jesus Christ in comparative mythology. Bacchus - Simeon Solomon Cult mask of Dionysus from Boeotia , 4th century BC.
Ancient Greece portal Myths portal Religion portal. University of Michigan Press. Brill Publications. Burkert, p. For the initiate as Bacchus, see Euripides , Bacchae In Euripides , Bacchae — : "He holds this office, to join in dances,  to laugh with the flute, and to bring an end to cares, whenever the delight of the grape comes at the feasts of the gods, and in ivy-bearing banquets the goblet sheds sleep over men. Archibald, in Gocha R. Tsetskhladze Ed. Ancient Greeks west and east , Brill, , p. Algora Press. Gotham Books. To the Cynic Heracleios. History of the Theatre.
Dionysism and Comedy. Rowman and Littlefield. Tesis doctoral, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Word study tool of ancient languages. November 2, Archaeology News Network. Raymoure, K. University of Oslo. Beekes , Etymological Dictionary of Greek , Brill, , p. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press. Aegobolus ; Pausanias , 9. Mythology For Dummies. Algora Press , p. Backgrounds of Early Christianity. Eerdmans Publishing. The Dramatic Festivals of Athens. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2nd ed.
The Dionysiac Mysteries. In Pella, ZPE , Iacchus, p. Iacchus; scholiast on Aristophanes , Frogs Rutherford , p. Arnobius , Adversus Gentes 3. Compare with Photius , s. Zagreus, p. McClelland Encyclopedia of Reincarnation and Karma.
Wiseman , "Satyrs in Rome? Bostock at Perseus: Tufts. History of Western Philosophy. Routledge, , p.
It was precisely libido, that morally subversive aspect of the Bacchic cult, that led to its brutal suppression The Chronicle of Lanercost, — Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. History of Windham County, Connecticut. Hellenic Polytheism: Household Worship.
Retrieved 3 August George Rawlinson Translation. Book 2. Frank Cole Babbitt, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies. Classical Philology. Nysa was regarded as the birthplace and first home of Dionysus. The divine marriage of Plouton and Persephone was celebrated on 'the meadow'. The dangerous region that Kore let herself be lured to in search of flowers was likely not originally connected to Plouton but to Dionysus, as Dionysus himself had the strange surname of 'the gaping one', though despite this the notion that the wine god in his quality as the Lord of the Underworld does not appear on the surface of the hymn.
The fact that Demeter refuses to drink wine on the grounds that it would be against themis indicates that she is well aware of who Persephone's abductor is, that it is the Subterranean cover name of Dionysus. The critic of the mysteries, the severe philosopher Herakleitos once declared "Hades is the same as Dionysos.
In the iconography after his initiation Herakles in shown wearing a fringed white garment with a Dionysian deerskin thrown over it. Kore is shown with her mother Demeter and a snake twined around the Mystery basket, foreshadowing the secret, as making friends with snakes was Dionysian [P. The god of the Anthesteria was Dionysus, who celebrated his marriage in Athens amid flowers, the opening of wine jars, and the rising up of the souls of the dead [P.
There are two reliefs in a marble votive relief of the fourth century BC. One depicts Kore crowning her mother Demeter, the deities at the second altar are Persephone and her husband Dionysus as the recumbent god has the features of the bearded Dionysus rather than of Plouton. In his right hand, he raises not a cornucopia, the symbol of wealth, but a wine vessel and in his left, he bears the goblet for the wine. Over their heads an inscription reads "To the God and Goddess" [P. The fragments of a gilded jar cover of the Kerch type show Dionysus, Demeter, little Ploutos, Kore, and a curly-haired boy clad in a long garment, one of the first son's of the Eleusinian king who was the first to be initiated.
On another vase, Dionysus sits on his omphalos with his thryrsos in his left hand, sitting opposite Demeter, looking at each other severely. Kore is shown moving from Demeter towards Dionysus, as if trying to reconcile them [P. The duplication of the mystery god as subterranean father and subterranean son, as Father Zagreus and the child Zagreus, husband and son of Persephone, has more to do with the mysteries of Dionysus than with the Eleusinian Mysteries.
But a duplication of the chthonian, mystical Dionysus is provided even by his youthful aspect, which became distinguished and classical as the son of Semele from the son of Persephone. Semele, though not of Eleusinian origin, is also a double of Persephone [P. What is a God? The Classical Press of Wales. The identification of Hades and Dionysus does not seem to be a particular doctrine of Herakleitos, nor does it commit him to monotheism. The evidence for a cult connection between the two is quite extensive, particularly in Southern Italy, and the Dionysiac mysteries are associated with death rituals.
The Lord of the Underworld bore this name in the youthful form represented in the statue, ascribed to Praxiteles, which is now in the National Museum at Athens and probably stood originally in the place where it was found, the Ploutonion. This youth is Plouton himself- radiant but disclosing a strange inner darkness- and at the same time his double and servant, comparable to Hermes or Pais besides Kabeiros or Theos [Page: ].
The plentiful hair or long curls suggest rather Hades kyanochaites, Hades of the dark hair [Page]. Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter. Princeton University Press. Virgin Mother Goddesses of Antiquity. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved The American Journal of Philology , The Walters Art Museum. Edmonds , p. As Linforth noticed, "It is a curious thing that the name Zagreus does not appear in any Orphic poem or fragment, nor is it used by any author who refers to Orpheus" Linforth In his reconstruction of the story, however, Lobeck made extensive use of the fifth-century CE epic of Nonnos, who does use the name Zagreus, and later scholars followed his cue.
The association of Dionysos with Zagreus appears first explicitly in a fragment of Callimachus preserved in the Etymologicum Magnum fr. Earlier evidence, however, e. For other summaries see Morford, p. For a detailed examination of many of the ancient sources pertaining to this myth see Linforth, pp. The most extensive account in ancient sources is found in Nonnus , Dionysiaca 5.
See also Pausanias , 7. Includes Frazer's notes. Dionysos from the dead body of his mother Semele], handed it over to Hermes, and ordered him to take it to the cave in Nysa, which lay between Phoinikia Phoenicia and the Neilos the River Nile , where he should deliver it to the Nymphai Nymphs that they should rear it and with great solicitude bestow upon it the best of care.
James G. Frazer, translator. Abhinav Publications. Transcribed by Helen Bradstock. Version 1. Dionysus Myth and Cult. Indiana University Press. Gods of Love and Ecstasy. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions. Yale University Press. Palmer Dionysus: Myth and Cult. University of Chicago Press. March Dictionary of Classical Mythology. The Classical Quarterly. Dionysus: histoire du culte de Bacchus, p. Historical Novel Society. Retrieved 2 August SF Site. The New York Times. Retrieved 3 November New York Times.
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Internet Archive. Loeb Classical Library No. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press , Online version at Harvard University Press. Bowie, A. Bowie, E. Clement of Alexandria , The Exhortation to the Greeks. The Rich Man's Salvation. To the Newly Baptized. Translated by G.
Internet Archive edition. Dalby, Andrew Translated by C. Twelve volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Encinas Reguero, M. Walter de Gruyter, Euripides , Bacchae , translated by T. Buckley in The Tragedies of Euripides , London. Henry G. Harvard University Press. Oates and Eugene O'Neill, Jr.
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George Bell and Sons. Lightfoot, J. Hellenistic Collection: Philitas. Alexander of Aetolia. Edited and translated by J. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, Graf, F.
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